Product regulation (nicotine volume/concentration, safety/hygiene, ingredients/flavors)

35 countries regulate nicotine concentration/volume

32 countries prohibit use of harmful ingredients (except nicotine) in e-liquid

33 countries regulate quality of e-liquid content, require safety and quality evaluation or regulate flavors in e-liquid

Thirty-five countries regulate the amount (concentration/volume) of nicotine in e-liquids (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Scotland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Wales).

Thirty-two countries do not permit the use of ingredients (other than nicotine) that pose a risk to human health in heated or unheated form in nicotine-containing e-liquid (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Scotland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Wales).

Thirty-three countries regulate the quality of nicotine and other ingredients used to manufacture the e-liquid; require products to pass safety and quality evaluation; or regulate flavors that can be used in e-liquids (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Scotland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Wales).